Nanowires and Nanotubes
The nanorobótica is the manufacture of machines or robots of nanometric sizes, i.e. the order of the millionth of a millimeter. This technology is possible thanks to the nanowires and carbon nanotubes.
The nanowires are molecular structures with a diameter of the order of one nanometer with electrical properties or optical, which are used as semiconductors or light emitting diodes (LEDs).
These fibers are capable of generating electrical loads from the movement. Hence, they offer multiple applications, such as luminescent smart clothing or photovoltaic panels, as these tiny hairs would involve a larger surface capturing solar radiation.
Carbon nanotube is an artificial nanostructure, similar to that of the Fullureno, which consists of a graphite sheet composed of carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal netting and wrapped over itself as a cylinder. They have a great resistance, 100 times greater than steel, being 6 times lighter. Carbon nanotubes can also be “doped”, or modified with small amounts of other elements, which confer on them electrical properties, making them semiconductors.
Nanometric devices are between one hundred and ten thousand times smaller than human cells. They are similar in size to large biomolecules, enzymes and receptors. Hemoglobin, the molecule that transports oxygen into red blood cells, is approximately 5 nanometers in diameter. Thus, devices of less than 50 nm can easily enter into most cells, while smaller, 20-nm, they can move out of the blood vessels as they circulate through the body.
Silicon nanowires are used to detect the molecular markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the body, despite the tiny size of these markers, one hundred thousand millionth of the protein present in a drop of blood. It has also been obtained direct connection with nanowires of kidney cells of human embryos and stem cells of mouse embryos causing the cables penetrate in the cells of a natural form while the cells grow in crops.
Nanoparticles are used to create molecular images of malignant lesions, allowing early detection and release of drugs.
Nano shells are a type of spherical nanoparticles formed by a dielectric nucleus that is covered by a thin metal shell. They are used to bind to cancer cells, Providing direct therapeutic treatments, which destroy the tumor cells and not damage the healthy neighboring cells.
Carbon nanotubes can be used as syringes needles at nanometric scale for the injection of molecules into cells and as nanometric probes for precise measurements. In turn, carbon nanotubes can be filled and capped, forming test tubes and Drug Administration devices.
The Nanowalker is a nanobot built with DNA fragments, 10 nanometers high, which although not able to mutate or reproduce, can take small steps, gathering and separating their legs, on a path also elaborated with DNA. It consists of a series of molecules that, from the chemical reactions that take place between the “legs” and the “soil”, reproduce the sincronicos movements of the biped gait.
Most of the nanobots are based on molecules, but they are also in bacteria. Sylvain Martel has developed a small robot propelled and directed by a swarm of 3000 bacteria. It is able to move objects to nanoscale thanks to a sensor that identifies the pH of the medium on which it is located, transmitting it wirelessly to a computer. There, a program generates the magnetic fields necessary to force the engine of the robot to move in one direction or another …