Aristotle, one of the greatest sages of antiquity, postulated, in the 4th century BC, that the inert matter could generate living beings in a spontaneous way, without the need of progenitors. This idea remained for more than two millennia until the French chemist Louis Pasteur, in 1864, showed that the process of fermentation was not due to spontaneous generation, but two organisms were involved-two varieties of yeasts-that were the key to the Process.
One produced alcohol and the other, lactic acid, which soured the wine. Raising the temperature for a short period of time of liquids such as wine, beer or milk, managed to eliminate the microorganisms that caused its fermentation, thus creating pasteurization.
The first microscope was developed by the eyeglass manufacturer Zacharias Janssen, in 1595, according to the Dutch (its reputation is doubtful, it was condemned to be boiled in oil for falsifying coins) or by Galileo Galilei, according to the Italians. These microscopes had a capacity of 3 X to 9 x magnifications.
In the middle of the 17th century, the Dutch merchant Anton Van Leeuwenhoek developed a microscope of 275 increases, thus initiating the branch of microbiology. The most widely used microscopes currently are electronic, transmission and scanning, with a resolution is between 3 and 20 nm, allowing the incursion into the atomic world.
Home Digital Microscope
As we have said, in the market there are digital microscopes that connect to the USB port of the computer, with a capacity of up to 25 increases, similar to that of the most sophisticated magnifiers. It is formed by a CCD camera of 0 ‘ 3 mega pixels.
Less than that of the lens, on which pegaréis this one. In turn, pegaréis the cardboard to the webcam, so that no light to the set, matching the two lenses. This way the CD ROM Lens will act as a magnifying glass, turning our webcam into a microscope.
As a tip, make white light affect some distance (not directly) on the object, and thus you better results. The round and flat lens containing the DVD players are also valid, getting around 7 x magnifications. The higher the definition of the camera, the more logical the results will be.
Home Optical Microscope
To build this microscope the necessary material is:
• A large match box.
• A mirror piece 3 x 3 cm and 3 mm thick.
• A glass sphere or drop (a clear, crisp, bubble-free marble may work).
• A piece of glass that will sometimes slide.
• A tissue sample (onion cuticle or thin sheet that is between the layers of the layer).
• Iodine solution (such as the one usually in the first aid kit) diluted in alcohol.
• Transparent adhesive tape that will work as it covers objects.
• Transparent adhesive tape to hold the glass sphere.
At one end of the box, we will make a small hole in which we insert the glass sphere. Next to it, and at the base of the box, we’ll make a hole big enough to fit the slide. At the other end of the box, and at the top, we will make a hole in the width of the mirror, and in the latter place it with an inclination of approximately 45º.
The way to use it is to look through the wait towards the mirror, placing between them the slides on which we have stuck the cuticle of onion dyed with the iodized solution. In order for the result to be optimal, we will direct the set of box and slides so that the light of an upcoming bulb that incides on the mirror is reflected in it and directed to the glass ball. (see figure attached).
If you have no time or patience, you can always use binoculars, but in a way inverse to the usual, bringing the larger lens to the object you want to observe and focusing finely.